First aid represents all the techniques for helping people who are victims of an accident, disaster, health problem or social problem compromising their state of health in the short term.
These techniques make it possible to provide effective responses to a vital danger and have the objective of minimizing the consequences while ensuring the survival of people by providing them with emergency first aid. First aid is the initial link upstream of the rescue chain until it is taken over by specialized emergency services.
Saving a life sometimes takes very little. Sometimes all it takes is an appropriate response to prevent, limit or avert an imminent danger.
The notion of emergency alert depends greatly on the infrastructure of the country in which one is located. In countries where public assistance is poorly developed, the only help one can hope to obtain is undoubtedly the intervention of the police or that of a doctor, the fight against calamities and fires based on solidarity within the population. It is therefore necessary to be able to obtain the telephone number of the police station or the doctor and to reach him directly; in this context, it may be wise to bring a sick or victim to the doctor's office, dispensary or hospital emergency room.
In countries where public assistance is very developed, the victim can get help quickly, so it would be a mistake for a witness to want to transport her to the care structure without medical advice: transport by people not not being a rescue professional could worsen the victim's condition or even cause his death. In such a context, the alert takes precedence over any other action except protection.
A person suffering from illness, illness or accident must, in a certain number of cases, be taken care of by health professionals, possibly in a hospital. The States set up an organization of care and relief allowing this support. However, someone has to be able to notify these services. This is the primary role of the witness.
Several interveners will participate in the care of the victim, so we are talking about the rescue chain. Witnessing the incident is the first link in the rescue chain. It is therefore necessary for the latter to prevent the emergency services, at the risk that the victim will not be taken care of.
Moreover, in the most serious cases (for example profuse bleeding, stopping breathing, immediate danger), help, however rapid they may be, will arrive too late: it is estimated that the first steps must be taken within three minutes after the accident. This is where the importance of knowing how to perform first aid is great.
The witness, although being the least competent, is therefore the key to the victim support system. Without a witness, no help; without first aid, little chance of survival.
In the event of cardiac arrest, defibrillation within four minutes gives a survival rate of 40 to 50% compared to less than 5% if it occurs later. For chemical eye damage, immediate rinsing with water can save eyesight. For spinal cord injuries, proper immobilization can mean the difference between complete recovery and paralysis. In the case of bleeding, simply pressing a finger on a bleeding vessel can end life-threatening blood loss.
Even the most careful medical care cannot correct erroneous first aid effects.
In case of a deep cut, it is recommended to apply pressure on the wound with a bandage or a clean cloth to stop the bleeding. It is essential to wear gloves or any equipment that can help protect yourself or the victim from any infection. Then the person should be taken to a health center to receive the appropriate treatment. The most important thing with a deep cut is to stop the bleeding. For minor cuts, the bleeding should also be stopped by pressing on the wound and putting on a bandage. To distinguish a deep cut from a minor cut, you have to see how much blood is being lost. It is also necessary to see if the blood spurts out in jets. If so, it means it's a deep cut that requires medical advice. Whether the bleeding is minimal or significant, it is important to have the right gestures. The tourniquet is the last option to consider in case of bleeding, says Navin Mahadoo. It is also recommended to stay calm and talk to the victim to reassure them.
The severity of the burn must first be determined: is it simple or severe? If the burnt part exceeds the surface of the palm of the hand, a doctor should be consulted. The treatment is the same in both cases: place the burnt part under running water to cool it, which helps reduce inflammation. Toothpaste or any other product (oil or butter) should not be applied without medical advice. These products will prevent proper ventilation of the burn.
Airway If the airway is blocked by a foreign object, there are two ways you can try to remove it, whether in a child or an adult. The first technique to prevent suffocation in an infant is to place it on its stomach and slap it between the shoulder blades, while keeping the air passage clear. If this does not work, the infant should be turned onto their back and pressure applied to the rib cage. In children and adults, stand behind the victim and slap him between the shoulder blades. If that doesn't work, stand behind the victim, then put your arms around them at chest level and apply pressure. This is the Heimlich method.
is easy for a child to confuse a bottle of juice with a cleaning product. However, it is possible that an adult consumes such a product by accident. The first thing to do is to take the product with you and take it to the nearest health center. Be careful, nothing should be given to the victim to drink, as this may interact with the product ingested.
In the event of an accident, great care must be taken before moving the victim. This can damage his spine and cause irreversible internal damage. We should not improvise first aid when we do not know what to do. The best is to stay with the person and reassure them if they are conscious or to delimit the perimeter so that they do not incur any other danger. The protective helmet should not be removed either. A rescuer has his limits. He must respect them.
In the event of cardiac arrest, artificial respiration and cardiac massage should be performed in order to oxygenate the heart. Artificial ventilation is mouth-to-mouth breathing to deliver air to the person by tilting their head back when they are lying on their back. For chest compression, you must apply pressure with the palm of your hand thirty times and practice mouth-to-mouth once until help arrives.
Some of the actions mentioned can only be performed by people who have received first aid training.